All about human respiratory system

Hello friends, if you want to get information about the human respiratory system, then you have come to the right place because through this page you will be given complete information about the human respiratory system in detail.

Let us read in detail about the respiratory system of the human body today.

human respiratory system

In human respiration, where does the respiratory system go by combining all the systems present in that path through which the air passes to the lungs and out of the lungs.

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structure of human respiratory system

In humans, respiration takes place through the lungs, such respiration is called pulmonary respiration. The passage through which the outside air enters the lungs and carbon dioxide exits from the lungs is called the respiratory tract.

In humans, there are many organs for the movement of air between the external air and the lungs. These organs are called respiratory organs. These organs together make up the respiratory system.

The structure of the respiratory system differs between humans and animals. In humans, the lungs are the major part of the respiratory system. Oxidation of foods provides energy to cells. Respiration is a catabolic and involuntary action.

Some important points related to the respiratory system

  • The respiratory rate is 12-15 in adults and 44 in children.
  • Staying at high altitude for a long time increases the amount of RBCs i.e. hemoglobin and CO2 in the blood.
  • Oxygen cylinder does not work at altitude above 11 km.
  • A normal person inhales 500 ml of air in one breath.

parts of respiratory system

The respiratory system is divided into four parts

  • external respiratory system
  • Air Transport / Sensing Respiratory System
  • internal respiratory system
  • cellular respiratory system

1. External respiratory system

In this type of respiratory system, air is carried through the nostrils to the lungs.

There are 6 types of external respiratory system.

  • nostril
  • pharynx
  • larexy
  • trachea
  • lung
  • diaphragm

(a). nostril

It is the main part of the respiratory system, which produces mucus artefacts, on an average, mucus art is formed every day.

Its main function is to prevent the entry of micro-organisms, dust particles, air pollution elements etc. present in the air and it makes the inside air moist according to the temperature of the body, the main function of the nasal passage is to smell.

(b). Pharynx

This is the back part of the nasal passage, where the freedoms are partially. The nasal cavity further opens into the mouth.

This place is called the oral cavity or pharynx. It is a funnel-like shape, that is, wide from the front and thin from the back.

It is divided into three parts.

  • Nossopharynx
  • Oropharynx
  • laryngeal pharynx (Larynigospharynx)

Nosopharynx:- It is the posterior part of the nostril and the front part of the soft palate. In this, the nostrils open through the nostrils. In this part a pair of auditory ducts come and open from the ear cavity, these ducts are related to the ears.

Oropharynx:- This is the lower part of the soft palate, which extends to the pharynx, this part also serves as the conduction of food along with breathing, that is, both breathing and food pass through this part.

Laryngopharynx:- This is the part connected to the esophagus behind the glottis. It has two openings, the first hole is the entrance to the food pipe and the second hole is the entrance to the respiratory tract. That is, from here there is a path of food on one side and breathing on the other.

functions of the pharynx

  • The pharynx is a major part of the respiratory system.
  • This organ performs the function of transport of air and food.
  • The air taken in the form of breath reaches the windpipe through this pharynx.

(c). larexy

It serves to connect the pharynx and the retica, where a thin leaf-shaped valve is found, which is called epilytic.

This valve closes while swallowing food, due to the vibration of the vocal cords present here, the sound is generated.

(d). trachea

It is called the thoracic gate of the respiratory system, the main two parts of the trachea are called bronchi which go on to form the bronchiole.

The right bronchiole divides into three parts and joins the lungs, while the left bronchiole divides into two parts to join the left lung.

(e). lung

There are a pair (two) lungs (pleuras) in the human body, in which air goes in based on the process of air respiration until the air pressure inside and outside the lungs becomes equal or equal.

Their color is light red, which acts like a sponge, the right lung is larger than the left lung. The air inside the lung is mixed with the blood and separated from it.

lung function

  • Human lungs have a dense network of air sacs.
  • Thus these alveoli form a structure similar to that of a beehive in the lungs.
  • The lungs have a direct relationship with the heart.
  • Taking carbon dioxide-rich blood from the heart, the blood vessel (pulmonary artery) comes into the lungs and divides into many branches.
  • left like this atmosphere The work of exchange (exchange) in oxygen and carbon dioxide brought by the blood from the cells inside the body takes place in these lungs.

It is a respiratory organ made up of flexible muscles. It is the most powerful muscle in the respiratory muscles, which is related to both the lungs. This diaphragm holds both the lungs down.

Functions of Diaphragm:-

  • This diaphragm serves to divide the thorax and abdomen.
  • Due to the connection of the lungs with this diaphragm, when the lungs inhale, it affects the abdomen (abdomen).
  • Due to the pressure of the diaphragm on the dance side, the abdomen expands while on the contrary, the lungs are compressed when exhaling from the lungs.
  • Then the contraction of the abdomen occurs due to the upward pull of the diaphragm. In this way, the effect of respiration falls on the abdominal region.

2. Air Transport / Sensing Respiratory System

The movement of air to the lungs through the respiratory system is called inhalation while the exhalation of air from the lungs through the respiratory system is called air transport.

3. Internal Respiratory System

The internal respiratory system works in transporting air from the lungs to the cells of different parts of the body, in which the hemoglobin present in the blood and 80% of oxygen and other gases reach the cells, while carbon dioxide from the cells to the lungs is carried through the lymph. are transported from

4. Cellular Respiratory System

The decomposition of glucose obtained from the digestion of food substances inside the cell and combining the energy generated in this decomposition (the whole process) is called cellular respiration.

There are two types of cellular respiration

  • anoxy respiration
  • oxygen respiration

anoxy respiration

It is a process that takes place inside the cell in the absence of oxygen. In this process the glucose obtained (in the absence of oxygen) is broken down or converted into lactic acid, bacteria, ethanol alcohol, pyruic acid etc. This whole process is called glycolysis.

Pyruvic acid is formed in the final form in anaxi respiration. In the glycolysis process (ATP – Adreno Triphosphate) 2 molecules of ATP are broken down. One ATP molecule releases 8000 kcal of energy.

oxygen respiration

Oxygen respiration is the process of breaking down glucose in the presence of oxygen inside the cell. On completion of this process, water, carbon dioxide as well as energy (2880 kcal) are produced.

air capacity

The measure of the amount of air taken by a person in each breath and the amount of air released in the breath is called air capacity. An instrument called a spirometer is used to measure it.

Some important points of human air capacity are described as follows.

  • Tidal volume
  • inhaled reserve volume
  • fixed reserve volume
  • Residual Volume
  • Vital Capcity of Lungs
  • Total lung capacity

Tidal volume

The amount of air which is inhaled in normal breath and released in normal exhalation is called Prana Vayu. This quantity is 500. This quantity is the same in both men and women.

Inspiratory Reserve Volume

The amount of extra air that can be inhaled even after normal breathing. This is called the expiratory reserve volume. This volume of air is 3300.

Expiratory Reserve Volume

The amount of air that can be exhaled in excess even after exhaling is called the expiratory reserve volume. This volume of air is 1000.

Residual Volume

We cannot completely empty the lungs of air, but even after deep inhalation, some amount of air remains in the lungs, this amount of air is called residual volume. The volume of this volume of air is 1200.

Vital Capcity of Lungs

The volume of the air inhaled in a deep breath and the air released in a deep exhalation is called the vital air capacity of the lungs. This volume of air is 4800 ohms.

Total lung capacity

The capacity of the lungs to take maximum air is called the total air capacity of the lungs. This volume of air is 6000 ohms.

must read

Hope you liked this post on Respiratory System of Human Body. And if you have not read the previous post about the human heart, then definitely read it and if you have any question, do not understand something, then definitely ask in the comment thank you.


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