Computer Memory- Definition, Types, Functions and Characteristics of Computer Memory
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What is computer memory
Memory is like a human brain, its use computer Used to store data and instructions in
Memory is like a storage space for a computer where data is processed.
Memory is stored by dividing it into a large number of small parts called cells.
Each cell present in the memory has a different identity, which is called the cell address or path, the data is stored in these cells only.
This data is stored in the form of Binary Digits 0 and 1. Memory devices use Integrated Circuit and Operating System, Software And Hardware are used by.
Types of Computer Memory
There are mainly three types of computer memory.
- Cache Memory
- Primary memory
- Secondary Memory
1. Cache Memory
This memory is very fast. Most of the frequently used programs and instructions are stored in this memory so that CPU be able to work faster.
Cache memory is located between CPU and primary memory i.e. CPU already gets data and instructions stored in cache memory and avoids duplication of work.
Because he no longer has to go to the primary memory to get instructions and data for any work, so the CPU works faster.
To store these data and instructions in the cache memory Operating System which are then used by the CPU. The storage capacity of this memory is limited, so it has to be cleaned frequently. This data is of no use to the user.
Benefits of Cache Memory
- Cache memory is much faster than main memory.
- It consumes very less access time than the main memory.
- It stores the programs that have to be executed within a short period of time.
- It stores the data for temporary use.
Disadvantages of Cache Memory
- Cache memory has limited capacity.
- It is very valuable.
- Stored data has to be cleaned frequently.
2. Primary Memory
Primary memory is also called main memory. It stores only the data and instructions on which the computer is working at that time. It does not store the data permanently.
Its storage capacity is very less. When the system is switched off, all the information is deleted from the memory. The primary memory is made of semiconductor devices and is located near the CPU in the computer.
Due to which the CPU takes less time to access the data from the primary memory. It is less fast than Register Memory but faster than Secondary Memory.
There are two types of primary memory.
Features of Primary Memory
- It is much faster than Secondary Memory.
- This is Semiconductor Memory.
- It is also called Main Memory or Prime Memory.
- When the computer power is switched off, the data in it is lost.
- This is the working memory of the computer.
- A computer cannot run without primary memory.
3. Secondary Memory
Secondary memory is non-volatile memory and is mainly used to store data for a long time.
It is slower than the primary memory but its storage capacity is very high. You will get to see it in the size of GB and TB.
CPU does not directly access secondary memory. For this, the data stored in the secondary memory is first loaded into the RAM, from where the CPU accesses the data again. So RAM is called primary memory.
Secondary memory is also called storage device. It is both internal and external. like HDD, SSDFlash Drive, Pen Drive, memory card etc. All these are used to store data and their cost is less than primary memory.
Features of Secondary Memory
- These are Magnetic and Optical Memories.
- It is used to store data in the computer.
- This is Non Volatile Memory.
- A computer can also run without secondary memory.
- It is also called Backup Memory.
- It stores data permanently. Even if you switch off the power of the computer, it remains stored.
- It is very slow compared to primary memory.
- They come in both cheap and expensive prices.
What is Volatile and Non Volatile Memory
Volatile memory is computer memory that requires power to maintain the stored data. Most modern semiconductor volatile memory is either static RAM or dynamic RAM.
This is why if your computer freezes or reboots while the program is running, you may lose data that you didn’t store.
Non-Volatile is computer memory that can retain stored data even when it is not turned on. In the example of non-volatile memory, read-only memory such as Hard Disk Drive, Floppy DiskOptical Disk, EPROM etc.
Apart from this, the third category of memory is Semiconductor Volatile Memory. This term is used for the memory on which the data remains for some time after power outage but after some time that data is lost.
What is Virtual Memory
To do the work of multiprocessing in the computer, it is very important to have RAM. Multiprocessing means to open many programs and applications simultaneously in which Web Browser, Microsoft Word ExcelIncluding the use of programs like Photoshop, etc.
The RAM in the computer performs this function in order to run the program in different ways in any computer. Every time we open different applications in the computer, the space of RAM is filled by running the application.
And sometimes there comes a time that the RAM space is completely filled by running these applications. After that no application or software can be run in the computer.
In such a situation, the computer uses Virtual Memory. Virtual Memory computer Of hard disk Taking the space of is used for the alternative task of RAM in the computer. Virtual memory provides a separate RAM to the computer which is completely different from the physical RAM.
What is Register Memory
The smallest for the purpose of register memory size in a computer system but the fastest in speed is the memory. computer Processor Direct access to the Register Processor can be done because Register Memory is a part of the computer processor itself.
Registers are very small data holding elements that store instructions, memory addresses, and data that are frequently used by the processor. All types of data pass through these registers before being processed.
To process the data entered by the user CPU Uses register. Registers can store very small data whose size is in bits. The speed of any CPU depends on the size and number of registers present in it.
What is Bit and Byte
Bit : Bit is the basic unit of computer and information technology. A beat can have only one value of 0 or 1 . It can be understood in this way that the computer works by binary code.
These binary codes are 0 or 1 and these binary codes are called bits. The biggest and the smallest computer actions are done by these bits. Beat is denoted by the English small letter ‘b’.
Byte : Byte is the next unit of computer’s bit. 8-Bits together make a Byte. Byte is such a unit of computer which is stable.
If 8 bits together perform an action, then they form a Byte. Bytes are often used by us in computers to know the data. Byte is denoted by the capital letter ‘B’ of English.
- 1024 Bytes = 1 Kilo Bytes = 1 KB
- 1024 Kilo Bytes = 1 Mega Bytes = 1 MB
- 1024 Mega Bytes = 1 Giga Bytes = 1 GB
computer memory question and answer
1. How is the memory used?
When a program, such as your Internet browser, is open, it is loaded from your hard drive and placed in RAM.
This process allows that program to communicate with the processor at a higher speed. Whatever you store on your computer, such as a picture or a video, is sent to your hard drive for storage.
2. Why is memory necessary for a computer?
Each device in a computer runs at a different speed, and computer memory allows you to quickly access your computer’s data.
If the CPU has to wait for a secondary storage device like a hard disk drive, the computer will become very slow.
3. What is a Memory Unit?
Memory unit is a method of measuring the data storage capacity of computer memory. Just as there is a liter to measure water, in the same way there are memory units in the computer memory.
4. What is considered as the data or instructions to be entered in the computer memory?
The data or instructions to be entered in the computer memory is called input. Whenever we have to enter any data or information in computer memory, we enter that data in computer memory with the help of input device.
5. What happens to the memory when the computer is turned off?
RAM is volatile memory so when the power goes out from the computer then whatever data is stored in RAM is lost. If the data is stored in a non-volatile memory, then the data remains secure.
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